Located in the department of Bas-Rhin, region of alsace, on the Ill River, near the Rhine, Strasbourg is a French city with over 250,000 inhabitants. The see of a bishop, it has numerous famous monuments, including the cathedral in red sandstone, built from the 11th to 14th centuries. Having only one tower, it is decorated with Gothic carvings, stained glass, and tapestries, and has a beautiful astronomical clock. The maison de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame, from the 14th to 16th centuries, contains a museum. Other churches include Saint-Thomas, from the 13th to 14th centuries, with the masoleum of Marshal saxe, by jean-baptiste pigalle, Saint Pierre-le-Jeune (13th century), Saint-Guillaume (15th century), and Saint-Pierre-le-Veiux (15th century). A famous building is the château des Rohan, dating from the 18th century. Strasbourg's museums include the Archaeologic, Modern Art, Alsatian, Historic, Fine Arts, and Decorative Arts, and in its picturesque quarter, "Old France," are mansions, covered bridges, and three important towers. The main squares are Place Kléber (statue of General kléber) and Place Broglie. As a city on the Rhine (France's second-largest river port, after Paris), situated near the great European economic and urban centers, Strasbourg takes full advantage of its strategic position as a central border city. It is the headquarters of the European Council since 1950 and of the European union and Human Rights Commission since 1966; in 1992, Strasbourg became the seat of the European Parliament. There is a university, particularly noted for medical and biological studies, other large schools, and, since 1992, the École nationale d'administration (ENA). Historically the site of the Oath of Strasbourg, taken by Charles the Bald and Louis the German in 842, Strasbourg, with all of Alsace, became part of the Holy Roman Empire beginning in 855. The German inventor of printing, Johann Gutenberg, resided there from 1434 to 1447, where he began his invention of typography. In 1681, the city was reunited with France, and a citadel was constructed in 1687. J. W. Goethe and prince Klemens von Metternich both studied at the university. In 1792, it was at Strasbourg that roger de lisle first sang la marseillaise ("Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin"). Besieged by the Germans in 1870, the city surrendered after a heroic resistance. It remained part of Germany until 1918. Strasbourg also suffered much during World War II and was liberated by General philippe leclerc in November 1944.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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